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            2019年07月23日 星期二
            非遺項目
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            省級非遺項目—蒙古包制作技藝

            2017-03-21 03:13:00 點擊數:1728

            蒙古包制作技藝

            2017-03-21 03:13:48 點擊數:273

            蒙古在遼闊的蒙古高原上,寒風呼嘯,大地點綴著許多白色的帳篷,它們就是蒙古包。

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            蒙古包(Mongolianyurts)古代稱作穹廬、“氈包”或“氈帳”。據《黑韃事略》記載:“穹廬有二樣:燕京之制,用柳木為骨,正如南方罘思,可以卷舒,面前開門,上如傘骨,頂開一竅,謂之天窗,皆以氈為衣,馬上可載。草地之制,以柳木組定成硬圈,徑用氈撻定,不可卷舒,車上載行。”隨著畜牧業經濟的發展和牧民生活的改善,穹廬或氈帳逐漸被蒙古包代替。蒙古包呈圓形尖頂,頂上和四周以一至兩層厚氈覆蓋。普通蒙古包,頂高10-15尺,圍墻長約50尺左右,包門朝南或東南開。包內四大部分為:哈那(即蒙古包圍墻支架)、天窗(蒙語“套腦”)、椽子和門。蒙古包以哈那的多少區分大小,通常分為4個、6個、8個、10個和12個哈那。12個哈那的蒙古包,在草原是罕見的,面積可達600多平方米,遠看如同一座城堡。過去幾十個如此大的蒙古包聚在一起,十分壯觀。

            蒙古包自匈奴時代起就已出現,一直沿用至今。蒙古包外觀呈圓形,頂為圓錐形,圍墻為圓柱形,四周側壁分成數塊,每塊高160厘米左右,用條木編圍砌蓋;游牧區多為游動式。游動式又分為可拆卸和不可拆卸兩種,前者以牲畜馱運,后者以牛車運輸。哈薩克、塔吉克等族牧民游牧時也居住蒙古包。

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            蒙古包是許多蒙古人的日常居住地。多數蒙古人終年趕著他們的山羊、綿羊、牦牛、馬和駱駝尋找新的牧場。蒙古包可以打點成行裝,由幾只駱駝運到落腳點,再起帳篷。

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            蒙古族傳統民居。流行于內蒙古自治區等地牧區。一圓形天空,通煙氣。包門小,朝南或朝東南。具有制做簡便,便于搬運、耐御風寒,適牧等特點,多用在蒙古語中“家”、“屋”的意思。古時候稱蒙古包為“穹廬”、“氈帳”或“氈房”等。

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            蒙古包搭好后,人們進行包內裝飾。鋪上厚厚的地毯,四周掛上鏡框和招貼花。一些家具電器也進了蒙古包,生活十分舒暢歡樂。蒙古包的最大優點就是拆裝容易,搬遷簡便。架設時將“哈那”拉開便成圓形的圍墻,拆卸時將哈那折疊合回體積便縮小,又能當牛板。一頂蒙古包只需要40峰駱駝或10輛雙輪牛車就可以運走,20小時就能搭蓋起來。時代過渡時,其居住由窩棚過渡到帳篷,帳篷用樹木做支架上蓋毛皮。進入畜牧社會,支架變成哈納,同上面提到的洞頂變成天窗結合在一起,便有了蒙古包的雛形。也出現了毛氈帳,其形似天幕,用羊毛毪覆蓋。據《呼倫貝爾概要》載:“呼倫貝爾之普通蒙人,每限于游牧,依水草而居,轉徙無常,概以穹廬為棲止。此種天幕生涯,可蔽風雪,可防虎狼。”“穹廬'滿洲語曰‘蒙古博’,俗讀‘博’為‘包’。”宋末元初遼人趙良嗣詩曰:“朔風吹雪下雞山,燭暗穹廬夜色寒”,所詠的就是蒙古包。

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            蒙古包

            古代的翰兒朵。此系古代蒙古貴族所用的蒙古包。亦做"窩裹陀",又稱"宮帳"。這種蒙古包與普通蒙古包相比較有三個特點:其一,容積很大。普通蒙古包高約十三、四尺,寬五、六尺。古時的翰兒朵則高大得多。據魯不魯乞記敘:"他們把這些帳幕做得如此之大,以至有時可達三十英尺寬。有一次,一輛車在地上留下的兩道輪跡之間的寬度,為二十英尺。當帳幕放在車上時,它在兩邊伸出車輪之外至少各有五英尺。有這樣的情況,有一輛車用二十二匹牛拉一座帳幕……"這種用二十二條犍牛所拉的巨型蒙古包是一種極富表現力的創造。

            其二,古代貴族用的翰兒朵富麗堂皇。《黑韃事略》徐霍注云:"霆至草地時,立金帳,其制則是草地中大氈帳,上下用氈為衣,中間用柳編為窗眼透明,用千余條線曳住,閾與柱皆以金裹,故名。"《蒙古秘史》云:"王汗毫不介意地立起了金撒帳。"撒帳即細毛布,此處為細毛布做成的金碧輝煌的鉅帳。這種經過裝飾以后的宮帳也叫"金殿"。

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            其三,宮帳的造型與蒙古包略有區別。宮帳的架子,是在哈勒嘎斯上插入烏尼并豎起哈那制成的。外形像人的脖子一樣。魯不魯乞稱蒙哥汗的宮殿為"有頸發屋"。據《水晶鑒》記載:"有天宮之帳曰宮帳"。宮帳上面呈葫蘆形,葫蘆象征福祿禎祥;下面呈桃兒形,桃兒形模仿天宮。成吉思汗陵寢地還保存有這種宮帳的造型。宮帳金頂輝煌,蒙古包用黃緞子覆蓋,其上還綴有藏綠色流蘇的頂蓋,極為富麗,表現了蒙古民族特有的建筑藝術。


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