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            2019年07月18日 星期四
            非遺項目
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            國家級非遺項目—蒙古族民歌

            2018-12-07 16:58:00 點擊數:818

            海西蒙古族民歌以聲音舒緩自由,曲調悠揚舒暢而聞名,生動地反映了海西蒙古民族的歷史文化、風土人情。海西蒙古族是西蒙古四部之一的和碩特部的主體,由于長期的群落獨居,使其生活習俗、勞動、學習、語言等方面與其他地區的蒙古族有著不同的特色,其禮俗和民歌獨具特色。

            海西平均海拔3000米左右,日照時間長,太陽輻射強,屬典型的高原大陸性氣候。海西蒙古族主要分布在德令哈市、烏蘭縣、都蘭縣、格爾木市、大柴旦及茫崖行委等地區,蒙古族人口為2.48萬人。

            海西蒙古族民歌音樂特征中有時從頭到尾主音反復,主旋律的大起大落,具備了獨特演唱特征;海西蒙古族民歌的結尾,一般都有“愿國家安寧”、“愿佛爺保佑”等祈祝詞,代表性地傾訴了蒙古族人民對和平美好生活的向往和追求;海西蒙古族民歌有別于其他地區蒙古族長調,具有獨特的演唱方式,而歌詞又印證了海西蒙古族游牧、遷移的歷史。

            海西蒙古族民歌在不同的場合有不同的歌曲,如婚禮就有婚禮歌,新蒙古包落成儀式也有贊頌蒙古包的歌曲,在不同的民俗活動中有不同內容的歌曲,所以它又具備了規范性特征;海西蒙古族部分民歌中,在曲調和演唱方式上還保留著十三、十四世紀蒙古族民歌的特征;海西蒙古族民歌的演唱方式具有群眾性,男女老少都要唱,因此它體現了群眾性和廣泛性特征。

            海西蒙古族民歌中的歷史傳說歌《嘎斯湖畔的白芨芨草》、《阿爾茨圖山頂》等歌曲在周邊省、區廣為流傳,膾炙人口。

            2006年11月24日,青海省人民政府批準青海省文化廳確定的第一批青海省省級非物質文化遺產項目名錄——“海西蒙古族民歌”、項目編號9II-6。

            2014年11月11日,國務院批準文化部確定的第四批國家級非物質文化遺產項目名錄擴展項目名錄——“蒙古族民歌”、項目編號604II-105

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