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            2019年07月23日 星期二
            民間文化
            您現在的位置:首頁? 民間文化

            茶卡鹽湖祭湖

            2018-12-07 15:43:49 點擊數:883

            茶卡鹽湖地處青海柴達木盆地 ,東部的烏蘭縣茶卡鎮,“茶卡”是藏語意為“青鹽的海”。茶卡鹽湖是個神奇而美麗的地方。茶卡鹽湖15.8公里,南北9公里,面積為105平方公里,是柴達木盆地開發歷史最為悠久的鹽湖。13世紀初蒙古民族進入青海后,蒙古各部首領及廣大蒙古牧民每年定時“祭海神”活動。茶卡鹽湖祭湖是烏蘭縣東部茶卡鎮歷史悠久的一種民俗祭祀活動,他是在蒙古族薩滿教文化背景下產生的獨特的民間信仰形式。

            茶卡鹽湖祭湖起源于明清時期,在1645年,固始汗統一唐古特四大部落后,將青海分為左右兩翼,當時的烏蘭地區屬左翼,并建扎薩克,劃分為左翼盟和碩特西前旗、西后旗、北左末旗三個旗。在18世紀初, 在茶卡鹽湖東南西北四邊始設了四個敖包,由當地蒙古族群眾在每年農歷5月15日,祭湖儀式。1779年茶卡地區屢遭土匪搶掠,牧民生命財產受到嚴重威脅,扎薩克一等臺吉巴勒珠兒派羅桑丹貝堅參前往香日德班禪大事行轅請愿求救,按照班禪大師行轅處的意見,在茶卡修建寺院,從此,茶卡地區牧民 祭湖加入了藏傳佛教祈福和平的內涵,形成了增俗守共的程序。在20世紀40年代以前,青海蒙古族二十九旗的蒙古族群眾都于每年農歷5月在茶卡鹽湖舉行祭湖儀式。

            改革開放后,在茶卡地區,重建寺院,恢復祭茶卡鹽湖。祭祀順序為,先在敖包上插一樹枝或紙旗,樹枝上掛五顏六色的布條,旗上寫經文,先用松枝將敖包裝飾起來,點燃桑煙,煨上柏香青稞,并向鹽湖女神獻上哈達,絲綢,敬上“德吉”,燒香點火、誦經后人們去煨桑,圍繞敖包從左向右轉三圈并叩拜。轉圈時牧民不斷向敖包拋灑風馬不時高喊“吉祥如意”,由13個屬龍的牧人騎上13匹白馬,其中年歲高并有威信的一人為首領,手持“招福旗”到茶卡鹽湖邊,將各自懷里的“代日”(就是用五色線綁定的白布袋里的“九寶”、“五谷”的祭海物品)扔進湖中。祈求湖神保佑牧民幸福安康、草場富饒、牛羊興旺,祈福國泰民安、風調雨順。傳統的祭祀儀式之后還會進行賽馬、射箭、摔跤、唱歌等富有民族特色的娛樂比賽。卡鹽湖祭湖活動形式古老,它包含了民間信仰、宗教祭祀禮儀、民間藝術等多種內容,保存了豐富的歷史信息,具有很高的學術價值。同時它也是民俗文化的重要載體,對非遺文化的傳承和保護發揮著不可替代的作用。

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