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            2019年07月20日 星期六
            民間文化
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            牦牛酥油,曲拉制作技藝

            2018-12-07 14:16:00 點擊數:822


            酥油是似黃油的一種乳制品,是從牛、羊奶中提煉出來的脂肪。藏區人民最喜食牦牛產的酥油。產于夏、秋兩季的牦牛酥油,色澤鮮黃,味道香甜,口感極佳,冬季的則呈淡黃色。羊酥油為白色,光澤、營養價值均不及牛酥油,口感也遜牛酥油一籌。酥油滋潤腸胃,和脾溫中,含多種維生素,營養價值頗高。在食品結構較簡單的藏區,能補充人體所需能量。酥油在藏區用途之廣,功能之多,如非親自目睹,簡直令人難以置信。

            提煉酥油俗稱“打酥油”,工具比較簡單:一個酥油桶,一個盛有適量水的大盆。酥油桶是木制的,并由三部分組成:(1)木桶,高及人胸,桶身上下等粗,外圍上、中、下各部分別用金屬箍或竹、藤箍、牛皮箍等箍緊。(2)一塊比木桶內徑略小的厚木板,上面掏有三角形或方形的五個孔,其中四孔均勻地分布在木板的各對稱部位,中間的方孔上固定著一根一握粗、直、高出桶1尺左右的木棍。一般情況下插在木桶里。(3)一與桶外徑相等的木蓋,“索達”柄從中央的圓孔中伸出。木蓋反面固定著幾根木條,使之更穩定地蓋于桶上,以保持桶內潔凈,酥油桶雖大小不一,但一般都能裝40斤奶左右。

            打酥油通常由一位婦女承擔,打酥油時,兩手握住木柄,用腰、臂以至全身力氣,壓“索達”下沉,觸及桶底;旋松手,任憑浮力又將其緩緩托起。如此周而復始,反復近千次,酥油才從奶中分離,浮于表層。這時,操作者精心、仔細地把酥油撈起,把粘在桶壁上的油點粘出,一并放入盛涼水的大盆里。在涼水中用兩手反復捏、攥,直至將酥油團中的雜質——脫脂奶除凈為止。人們習慣將酥油拍成扁圓或方形的坨團。夏季一桶奶能打出酥油3至5斤左右。

            〔曲拉〕即干酪,分三種:脫脂、半脫脂和不脫脂的。前者叫白曲拉,是提取酥油后發酵的酪汁煮沸,待水分蒸發曬干而成的白碎粒,昧香酸;不脫脂的叫奶子曲拉,是純奶熬成,昧香甜可口,油脂未提凈而熬制的叫青曲拉,質地堅硬,細嚼兼有奶子曲拉和白曲拉的味道。曲拉既是吃酥油炒面的極好佐料,又有助消化止瀉的功能。


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